Introduction to dermoscopy 
Basic Aspects 

1663 - J. C. Kohlhaus:
First observation of vessels of nail matrix with a microscope.

1879 - C. Hueter:
Analysis of vessels of oral mucosa with a microscope ("Cheilangioskopie").

1893 - G. Unna:
For the first time the term "Diaskopie" is used when studying a case of lupus vulgaris with a drop of immersion oil and a glass-slide.

1916 - C. Zeiss:
The first binocular dermatoscope is produced.

1920 - I. Saphier:
The term "Dermatoskopie" is coined and capillaries of normal and pathologic skin are studied for the first time.

1933 - H. Hinselmann:
The colposcope is used for the diagnosis of cutaneous ulcers and tumors.

1951 - L. Goldman:
Analysis of nevi and melanomas using different monoocular epiluminescence tools.

1958 - L. Goldman:
The first portable dermatoscope is produced.

1981 - P. Fritsch and R. Pechlaner:
Benign and malignant skin lesions are differentiated on the basis of various pigment network features.

1987 - H. Pehamberger et al.:
Introduction of pattern analysis for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions.

1989 - H.P. Soyer et al.:
Dermoscopic criteria are correlated with underlying histopathologic structures.

1990 - F.A. Bahmer et al.:
Terminology in surface microscopy based on a Consensus Meeting of the Committee on Analytical Morphology of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Dermatologische Forschung held in Hamburg in November 1989.

1991 - J. Kreusch and G. Rassner:
First Atlas of dermoscopy published in the literature.

1994 - W. Stolz et al.:
Application of the ABCD-rule of dermatoscopy representing a new practical method for early recognition of melanoma.

1998 - G. Argenziano et al.:
Introduction of an algorithm for the detection of melanoma called 7-point checklist.


1. Argenziano G, Fabbrocini G, Carli P, De Giorgi V, Sammarco E, Delfino M. Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7- point checklist based on pattern analysis. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1563-1570.

2. Bahmer FA, Fritsch P, Kreusch J, et al. Terminology in surface microscopy. J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1159-1162.

3. Goldman L. Some investigative studies of pigmented nevi with cutaneous microscopy. J Invest Dermatol 1951;16:407-410.

4. Goldman L. A simple portable skin microscope for surface microscopy. Arch Dermatol 1958;78:246.

5. Hinselmann H. Die Bedeutung der Kolposkopie fr den Dermatologen. Dermatol Wochenschr 1933;96:533-545.

6. Hueter C. Die Cheilangioskopie, eine neue Untersuchungsmethode zu physiologischen und pathologischen Zwecken. Centralb Med Wissensch 1879;13:225-227.

7. Kreusch J, Rassner G. Auflichtmikroskopie pigmentierter Hauttumoren - Ein Bildatlas. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag, 1991.

8. Pehamberger H, Steiner A, Wolff K. In vivo epiluminescence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of pigmented skin lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;17:571-583.

9. Saphier J. Die Dermatoskopie. I. Mitteilung. Arch Dermatol Syph 1920;128:1-19.

10. Soyer HP, Smolle J, Hdl S, Pachernegg H, Kerl H. Surface microscopy: A new approach to the diagnosis of cutaneous pigmented tumors. Am J Dermatopathol 1989;11:1-11.

11. Stolz W, Riemann A, Cognetta AB, et al. ABCD-rule of dermatoscopy: a new practical method for early recognition of malignant melanoma. Eur J Dermatol 1994;7:521-528.

12. Unna PG. Die Diaskopie der Hautkrankheiten. Berl Klin Wochensch 1893;42:1016-1021.